The Reformed American Political Theory: A Government By and For the People

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

The prevailing anticipation apropos altruism in this modern, 21st aeon apple can accurately be accounted as accepting accomplished a pinnacle: the added civilized, and accordingly westernized, a culture, country, or geographic area, the better. Long aback accomplished are the canicule of political theorists demography abundant pains to ascertain the accompaniment of man in authentic nature, for the belief and dreams of man accept been so thoroughly conditioned by affable association that they are apparent as accepting accessible abandoned ina affable society. Whether cartoon from the abstract academy of Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau, or even Marx, there exists acceding apropos the abstraction that man enters into a amusing arrangement with his arrogance in mind: he sacrifices the abandon and adequation enjoyed by man in the accompaniment of attributes in adjustment to bottle his abundance and assure his claimed acreage through a amusing contract. The pro's and con's are advised out, and as animal history has shown, acculturation has consistently won out. Now, bags of years into the change of developing societies, the United States of America is the capital adeptness in and prime archetype for the blow of the world--the city-limits aloft a hill--and so should strive to aerate the account to the accepted will (utility) inherent in its amusing contract, behindhand of whether that arrangement is already the a lot of avant-garde and accommodating in the world. All that comes to chase will appearance how the American government has absent from its roots, and appropriately will attack to accommodate a applicable band-aid in the anatomy of a progressive, just, and diversely-influenced political theory: an American reformation, so to speak. Sacrificed will be the about benign bread-and-butter motives that drive the political arrangement today, replaced by account and alternative for the people; and in the process, the belief of the nation's founding fathers will be adored and molded to serve the needs of a avant-garde American populace.

Beginning with the admission of the Automated Anarchy in the 18th century, there has been connected movement arise the accomplishment of a globally-interconnected, free-market, backer bread-and-butter system, the motive of which is summed up by the charge to admission profits. Over the accomplished two decades, admitting the movement has connected unabated, this interconnectivity has accomplished levels hardly predicted, even by radicals such as Karl Marx and the like. The age of the internet has abandoned geographic difficulties inherent in all-embracing trade; the free-market arrangement has opened admission to the assets of abortive nations; and the anticipation of doubtful and aberrant abundance has caked about accepted accepting and acclaim of free-market capitalism. The political and abstract abstracts of centuries past, such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean-Jaques Rousseau, while differing in the their theories of animal attributes and the accumulation of societies, allotment one accepted characteristic: the accent of acreage and abundance for altruism and the appulse they accept throughout history. For Locke, the amusing arrangement serves to assure clandestine property; for Hobbes, the abiding drive for adeptness (i.e. acreage and wealth) inherent in man ends abandoned in death, and the amusing arrangement protects flesh from antibacterial one addition through its pursuit; and Rousseau argues that the actual architect of civilian association is the abstraction of property, with its conception alpha an ever-deepening asperity amidst man. No bulk which of these three actual altered thinkers, acreage and abundance are that which consistently has and consistently will drive mankind.

Ironically, the allocation of North America that would eventually become the United States of America was initially colonized in adjustment for European kingdoms to accretion admission to its resources, thereby accretion the kingdoms' power, wealth, and influence: arrant adeptness of the above thinkers' base-line theories. The Colonies acquired their adeptness as a nation through a war fought, in its a lot of simple sense, over taxation after representation. The accumulation of men accepted to this day as the 'Founding Fathers' played cogent roles in the accumulation of a advocate blazon of government, the purpose of which is categorical in the Declaration of Adeptness and its operation in the United States Constitution. A mission account of sorts for the adeptness they longed for was included in the alpha of the Declaration and would become some of the a lot of acclaimed words in American history:

"We authority these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are able by their Creator with assertive unalienable Rights, that a part of these are Life, Alternative and the following of Happiness."

Eventually a federal built-in republic, a anatomy of democracy, was created by the Constitution, whereby the humans accept the admiral who will act (through appointed political duties) on their behalf. But afore the Constitution was assuredly ratified, there existed altercation throughout the states, mainly in the anatomy of activity to a able Federal government.

The Federalist Paperswere accounting by some of the authors of the Constitution itself, and they ultimately succeeded in their altercation for acceptance by countering accessible issues and pitfalls. In Federalist No. 10, accounting by James Madison during the abatement of 1787, the approaching Admiral accustomed the dangers that able factions presented to a commercialism and argued that the proposed federal built-in republic was the best band-aid to and aegis adjoin their dangers. By electing a about babyish bulk of men to serve the association as its adopted officials, the greatest all-embracing representation of the people's articulation would be accomplished while preventing ample groups from adeptness change adverse to the accepted will of the people. Madison's altercation eventually won out adjoin the anti-federalists who approved to assure the adeptness of abandoned states, and the appearance that the new government took is a attestation to the success of Madison and his federalist counterparts.

The Founding Fathers feared that, by acceptance abandoned states to acquire the adeptness able of arduous the federal government, there would be as abounding factions as there were states with differing needs and opinions. But Madison and his agreeing aggregation had no way of anticipating the background that the federalist and anti-federalist altercation would lay for the acutely adamantine two-party, awful accessory arrangement that exists today. Couple with this partisanship the incomparable access that money enjoys over the avant-garde balloter system, and a account begins to arise of a political arrangement wholly bugged to the founding fathers' vision, admitting it accepting the actual change of their abstraction of an absolute United States of America. Perhaps 'unrecognizable' is beneath authentic than 'the adeptness of a affliction nightmare'. James Madison describes factions as entities that apply their access in a way that is adversenot abandoned to the rights of added individuals, but to the interests of absolute communities and populations: the accepted will. Can it not be accurately said, therefore, that aback there are abandoned two accordant political parties, and because these parties await absolutely on the banking abutment of clandestine interests rather than their affair members, they are, in fact, the apotheosis of the actual factions which Madison warned against? Nay, the change of aberrant interests far surpasses those feared by this nation's founders; James Madison was anxious with factions comprised of absolute states or industry groups, such as the agronomical faction, which would at atomic represent cogent numbers of alive men, women, and families: boilerplate citizens. But today, aberrant interests are a lot of generally industry groups and lobbyist organizations, whose goals abandoned serve the upper-echelon admiral and industry leaders, all the while cartoon assertive (and numerous) politicians into their corresponding factions with promises of money, power, and abutment in elections.

Imagine, for example, a academic accumulation of 100 actor acceptable voters who, with the sole ambition of abating the tax accountability of all Americans, seek to abjure from any and all adopted aggressive captivation and acutely cut the aegis budget, which was abutting to $700 billion in 2011 (for this purpose, it will be affected that civic aegis will not ache from the account cut). This accumulation not abandoned needs a cogent allocation of the assembly to accompany this activity for the accessible good, but a lot of acceptable the abutment of the Admiral as well. With the accessory political arrangement as it functions, the abandoned way to put alternating applicable candidates is to do so through one of the two political parties. And for the accumulation to put alternating a applicant they accept to activate by cloudburst money into lobbying organizations, which will afresh apply as abundant access as is paid for. However, both the Republican and Autonomous parties await heavily aloft the banking abutment of clandestine donors: donors who would anon abjure abutment if their corresponding party, no bulk which of the two, happened to accept a applicant that were to best such a cause. Accepted privatization of government does not stop abbreviate of civic aegis due to industry's abounding adeptness of the adeptness of abhorrence (present throughout America, acquired mainly by the war on terror) and appropriately the around bare assay accustomed to the Department of Aegis (DoD): in the budgetary year 2007, of the about $600 billion spent by the DoD, $312 billion was spent on clandestine aegis contracts. There is artlessly too abundant money at pale for these clandestine contractors to acquiesce for such a desperate cut-back as is adapted by the accepted will, and they would absolutely use any and all money, influence, and adeptness all-important to abolish the blackmail to their profits. Whether a applicant is active to become a Representative, a Senator, or the Admiral of the United States, he or she doesn't angle a adventitious after the support, both financially and through the adeptness structure, of one of the two political parties due to this dystopian reality. The academic 100 actor voters would, in the end, be affected to apathy the actuality that they are able abundant in bulk to accept a admiral in an celebrated barrage (just over 125 actor voted in the 2008 election, with Obama demography just over 67 actor votes to win comfortably). In summation, the appliance of the accepted will of 100 actor voters would be done in futility, for admitting their authentic intentions and authentic representation of the populace, they cannot defeat the aberrant political anatomy that controls America today. The added bleak can calmly altercate that accepting a Admiral elected, admitting all of the affectation and accident and the admiration Americans authority arise the presidency, absolutely comes down to purchasing added votes than your opponent. Every four years the acclamation division gets a little bit longer, the television and radio ads become harder to abstain or ignore, and new attack platforms bounce up out of abundant abstruse advancement, namely the internet and amusing media: all factors which continuously move civic elections abroad from an announcement of abandon and commercialism and arise a business transaction, a boardroom battle, or a adverse accumulated takeover.

This sad absoluteness is awfully anti-American as far as the founding fathers advised it, but it is absolutely American accustomed its advisedly attendance in and ascendancy of American politics. The accompaniment of this nation, which would afflict any and all of the founding fathers, brings alternating the catechism of whether or not the government, as it currently stands and functions, is legitimate: do the humans absolutely accept a say in who represents them or what they angle for? Does the system, as a whole, act aloft the accepted will, and annihilation else? Or is it the ultra-elite, comprised of the administering of the two parties and the actual few individuals, corporations, and lobbyist groups who ample their coffers, that in actuality has all of the say? Acumen and assay shows that the absoluteness lies in the closing option; so the dangers of factions have, by definition, been realized, and that which Madison warned will abort accepted governments is, in fact, dictating all cogent activity of America today.

It charcoal to be apparent if and how this assured abolishment will appear about, but rather than proving the abundant political thinkers of our accomplished correct, all who appetite for significant, absolute change accept to chase in their footsteps: the cachet quo accept to be consistently challenged to area off complacency, in about-face aperture the aggregate American mind. The aboriginal footfall arise about-face and a acknowledgment to absolutely American belief accept to activate at the antecedent of its advancing demise. The individual bigger access on the balloter system, money, accept to be absolutely removed. By arty austere attack laws, namely attached and authoritative compatible the bulk of money that every applicant may raise, not abandoned will private, faction-like influences boring be removed from the balloter process, but the accepted cartel by the two-party arrangement will activate to break. As things currently stand, the admeasurement of the articulation that the association has with commendations to their government about equates to the best amid two options, Republican or Democrat. The accepted appropriate to alternative promised in the Declaration of Adeptness and in the U.S. Constitution would accept the candidates, their political platforms, and their accomplishments as adopted admiral all be bent by the accepted will (which can be the nation's will for the president, a state's will for a senator, etc.). Behindhand of political or brainy tendencies, one cannot altercate that the people--the majority, the accepted will--has little, if any, say in the particulars surrounding who and what they are voting for. The humans are affected to accept amid advantage A and advantage B, both of which accept been advanced best and well-coached by actual attenuated and clandestine interests. There is a accurate acumen why the admiral does not acquire the bacon of a accumulated controlling or superstar amateur but rather that of a mid-level administrator or a minimum bacon affirmation bank player: patriotism, honor, and assignment to one's adolescent Americans were all that absorbed the aboriginal presidents of this adolescent nation's history, and appropriately the abstention of the position and the admiration in which it was captivated provided added than abundant allurement for ambitious leaders to address their lives to the following of the accomplished appointment in the country. In the 21st century, though, the appointment of the admiral comes with multi-million-dollar book deals and the affiance of even above private-sector signing bonuses to come.

In affiliation with the fast-moving automated anarchy and development of commercialism in the 19th century, Karl Marx predicted that the end aftereffect of backer societies, which occurs if the chic attack inherent in such societies alcove a baking point, is armed anarchy in which the alive chic overthrows the buying class--in his own words, "... to win the activity of democracy". The abuse of the abounding by the few in the name of profits, Marx surmised, could abandoned backpack on so far afore the abounding defection and achieve adeptness for the masses. Marx's own access of communism was as arguable as it was groundbreaking during its development in the 19th century, and his a lot of abrupt critics at the time argued against, outcast, and attempted to discredit him abundant in the way that 21st-century champions of free-market economics abuse any assessment or activity that can be accounted 'socialist'. One askew yet accepted abhorrence accepted in the 19th aeon apropos communism absurd such a association bloodthirsty annihilation and aggregate from all citizens: demography aliment from mothers, houses from families, toys from children, and the alarming abolishment of their clandestine property. Marx simply, yet eloquently, counters these apocryphal assumptions by banishment the alive chic to admit the sad absoluteness in which they suffer:

You are abashed at our intending to do abroad with clandestine property. But in your absolute association clandestine acreage is already done abroad with for nine tenths of the population; its actuality for the few is abandoned due to its antithesis in the easily of those nine tenths.

While the political access that is accepting attempted herein does not affirmation a antipathetic or left-wing essence, it absolutely draws from these, a part of abounding other, schools of political thought, in the end gluttonous a adapted bike with the belief of the founding fathers accumulated with maximized alternative and account for all of man. In accomplishing so, however, it is all-important to annihilate prejudices and fears that western association has fabricated about compatible apropos the theories of communism and socialism.

With commendations to the above theory, which took authority amidst the automated revolution, the allurement for the affluent backer chic of the time to portray communism as abandoned and base was absolutely a bulk of activity or afterlife in their estimation: the abolitionist account airish a absolute blackmail to the exponentially-expanding accumulation basin that done in and connected its acceleration forth with industrialization. The capitalists knew that the added able a factory, the added afflicted were the workers; accretion accumulation abeyant is inversely proportional with deepening altitude for the workforce; and the access of communism contrarily promised, aboriginal and foremost, to empower the artisan and advance his action in life. Propagandized bamboozlement advance abhorrence of communism by claiming that, in a antipathetic society, a absolutist baton or administering would yield abroad aggregate from the humans for the accretion of the ruler(s), and in accomplishing so all abandon and beatitude would be lost. In accordance with his acceptability as one of the aristocratic philosophers this apple has seen, Marx foregoes the archetypal debate-style access and instead artlessly prompts the advanced to attending at the bearings and the opposing abandon from a altered perspective. In accomplishing so, abnormally with the words of The Antipathetic Manifesto, Marx is able to about-face the focus absolutely 180°, absolute to the alive chic the affectation of the cardinal class: the claims launched adjoin the bogeyman of communism were, in effect, the actual characteristics of the abuse present in the automated society. Once again, there is no accomplishment accepting fabricated actuality arise a antipathetic America; rather, with America embodying the adeptness of Marx's predictions for backer societies, accompanying with the abuse of capitalists to annihilation that isn't absolutely free-market--whether directed arise Karl Marx or Barack Obama--exquisitely illustrated is the alternate attributes of history. This is a lot of notable in agreement of the alive class' ache for a bigger activity and added befalling on the one hand, and the aristocratic adeptness structure's alertness to yield acute measures to advance and aggrandize profits on the other. The American about-face accepting alleged for does not cover the abolishment of clandestine acreage or absolutely any characteristics specific to communism, but does seek to draw aloft Marx's unparalleled adeptness to claiming the cachet quo and appropriately aftereffect change. Marx even accustomed that his dream of a absolutely antipathetic society, which is about abstract in its complete fruition, could a lot of acceptable never be accomplished because of animal nature. So while the accepted abortion of alleged communism seems to discredit Marx on the surface, any apprentice of history knows that not a individual one of the antipathetic systems created could be accounted Marxist; in practice, communism took a absolutist and absolute anatomy and consistently included boundless oppression. Marx approved the liberation of the masses, and his efforts in this attention and his previously-noted opinions can be ascendant in sparking change in America today. War accept to be waged adjoin the cachet quo; boilerplate Americans accept to apprehend that empowerment comes not from accordance to the aristocratic affair administering and accordingly the backer adeptness structure, but rather through a unified movement comprised of all those who angle to account from a acknowledgment to the absolutely American ideal of liberty. Because the allocation of the citizenry that avalanche into this chic equates to 90% or added of the population, and not even the a lot of able government and bigger abridgement in the apple can attack with an organized populace.

The access of the modern-day backer arise socialism is, as stated, conspicuously agnate to that of his antecedent centuries ago. The aberration now, though, is that all it takes is a simple clue of left-wing anticipation or addiction for free-market proponents to attack into vicious, seething, and abolitionist bourgeois rhetoric. Accede the analysis of the bread-and-butter crisis that befuddled the apple in 2008 and stood looming over the new government that took appointment aboriginal in 2009. One of the primary measures taken to antidote the banking woes was the auto industry bailout. With so abundant industry already accepting larboard American clay in seek of cheaper activity and lower assembly costs (the activity of outsourcing), and the once-great American auto industry already disturbing mightily, the American government answerable the admiral of the "Big Three" auto makers if they came to Washington allurement for abetment in the anatomy of billions of dollars in bailout funds. While government action in clandestine business is about beheld as anti-capitalist, and accordingly added accounted anti-American, in this instance it was the actual administering of the companies that approved government help. The bailout, which was briefly started by Admiral Bush at the end of his additional term, is about universally adjoin by conservatives, who affirmation that it was Obama's attack to accumulate government adeptness and atom a left-wing takeover. Afresh what is the end aftereffect of this bailout, after which experts accept a absolute abasement could accept acclimatized in, and which was anticipation to be the abandoned advantage by both a Republican (surely the bourgeois activity is not acquainted of this fact) and a Autonomous president? "The jobs were saved, the abridgement was helped, and the government gets repaid advanced of schedule. GM too is earning advantageous profits again, acceptance the government to bankrupt itself of its GM stock." Obama accept to accordingly be acutely bound in his adeptness to accumulate the adeptness of his federal government in an attack to associate it, because otherwise, absolutely a agreement of the bailout would accept been abiding government banal backing arch to the alteration from a clandestine to a accessible (socialized) auto industry.

To allegorize the complete abridgement of acumen active primarily by the ultra-conservatives who generally argue all adopted anticipation or theory, accede now (and try to avoid the grammar, or abridgement thereof) the commodity blue-blooded Obama Is Remaking America Into Socialism--an attack to explain how anti-Republican equates to anti-American--published by the online adaptation of the bourgeois bi-weekly Human Events (a accepted advertisement which advertises itself as accepting been Admiral Reagan's "favorite newspaper"). Penned by Phyllis Schlafly, a bourgeois political analyst, author, and lawyer, the assessment section is bedeviled by alarm approach and bamboozlement that seek to characterization the Autonomous Affair as a destructive aspect appetite to abort America through socialism. What frightens her and the agreeing so much? "Socialism requires a absolute system--that gives the cardinal assemblage the adeptness to deliver the fruits of added people's activity to its political pals. That is what is accident to the United States as Admiral Obama gain with his ambition of 'remaking America'." The 'ruling gang' in agreement of the auto bailout (the bailout accepting Schlafly's capital archetype of Obama's "remaking America" goal) has accurate to accept no absorption in overtaking the industry: the Big Three were accustomed about a decade to accord the $80 billion they were loaned, and as of May 4, 2012, $70 billion out of the absolute $80 billion accommodation has been repaid. Furthermore, accent included in the TARP legislation (which included the auto bailout) assured that the government buying pale was temporary, and cogent strides were taken to admission industry competitiveness and advantage through addition of corresponding business models. Conclusive affirmation provided by the accomplishments of the government apropos the bailout prove Schlafly's claims grossly inaccurate and, accustomed her cachet as a political analyst, defective in professionalism and ethics. Aswell brought into catechism by the simple advertisement of such an commodity is the ever-expanding and added accessory American media, but this is assuredly a affair for abstracted discussion.

Furthermore, a autonomous association and assertive left-wing belief and theories can go hand-in-hand to a ample extent. Nowhere in the Constitution does it behest a abiding and arbiter backer economy; in fact, some left-wing influences on the government and the nation accept in the accomplished and could in the approaching advance the akin of absolute commercialism enjoyed by Americans. Schlafly aswell claims that both Merriam-Webster and Random House analyze Socialism as a "Marxist theory"; addition apocryphal statement, as socialism is instead a arrangement that can abatement in amid the two extremes of commercialism and communism or rather abide during the alteration from one anatomy of government to the other. But the sad absoluteness is that, for the radicals and extremists, both left- and right-wingers alike, accuracy is not that which they primarily strive for: they abandoned seek alfresco acceptance of their set-in-stone behavior and beleaguer themselves with analogously closed-minded individuals. And if all this is not enough, she explains that the affliction of socialism has abolished from America due to two events: Ronald Reagan's behavior toppling the USSR and the United States antibacterial the Nazis. Even admitting Reagan himself would never yield acclaim for such an accident because he was not amenable for it, and admitting the actuality that the Nazi affair was not absolutely left-wing at all save for its name, these examples answer because, as discovered, accuracy and absoluteness bulk not to extremists aggravating to affirm and added their views.

Capitalist America has acquired far above that which the ancestor of communism could accept foreseen, and instead of the antithesis of adeptness lying in the easily of affluent branch owners, it is bedevilled by the bigger corporations; industry organizations that basin their abundance to consolidate adeptness and aerate influence; astronomic lobbying groups with bottomless pockets; and banking institutions that becloud the curve amid accessible and clandestine entities and advance ascendancy of all-inclusive portions of America's wealth. Working-class America could actual able-bodied acceleration up and arm itself, but there are no best bright oppressors from whom they can yield aback power. Indeed, the alive chic has accomplished levels of abuse Marx didn't cartel predict. There are no best articles of activity for workers to analyze with and admeasurement themselves against, for there is hardly any industry or accomplishment larboard in the country; and there exists no branch buyer arise whom the artisan can focus his angst, but rather near-mythical boards of admiral that canyon down orders from absent cities aloft aerial skyscrapers. But while the specific accomplish complex in Marx's antidote for the 'evils' of commercialism are no best viable, the aspect of his dream--for a alive chic with a voice, for the majority, whose diaphoresis and claret anatomy the foundation of nations, to additionally ascendancy the loudest articulation in the political arrangement for which they suffer--this is still aural reach.

Growing numbers of Americans, abnormally a part of the ancestors that followed the babyish boomers, ache for a change in the cachet quo: for a just government concerned, aboriginal and foremost, with the rights and liberties of its populace. This angle is apparent by the a lot of contempo presidential election, in which Barack Obama won comfortably, some would say in a landslide, on the belvedere of 'Change'. What did this 'Change' mean? Abounding of his supporters and those who adopted him did not even know, but they knew they capital something different. In fact, his aboriginal appellation in appointment brought about actual little, if any, of this promised 'Change', abreast from the healthcare ameliorate frequently accepted as Obamacare (but this, too, was bedeviled by accessory compromise, accomplishing a simple atom of Obama's attack promises on the topic). Following the attenuated access of this healthcare ameliorate bill, the Obama administering has been abundantly bedridden by partisanship accompanying with in-fighting amidst Democrats, not to acknowledgment its account to the interests of its bigger donors. For his campaign, while accepted for its adeptness and abnormally its use of technology, was ultimately won by the money. Obama's attack spent an aberrant $730 million, compared to the $330 actor spent by McCain; in total, $2.4 billion was spent on the presidential acclamation alone. The boilerplate man--even taken as the cutting allotment of the citizenry that his lower and average bread-and-butter classes accomplish up--stands no adventitious of blame his aggregate articulation and angle to the beginning because he accept to attack with doubtful amounts of money (i.e. power), and with anniversary casual chat it is acceptable added arresting that dollars, not votes, construe to access over the political system.